(This is still under construction. Further updates will occur soon.)
In a majority of nations around the world, most or all mineral resources belong to the government. This can include all valuable rocks, minerals, oil and/or natural gas that can be found within a country’s lands. Extraction of any of these items cannot be done legally in such countries without obtaining authorization/permitting from the governments.
However, in the U.S. and a few other countries, ownership of mineral resources was originally granted to individuals or organizations that owned the surface land. Such property owners had both “surface rights” and “mineral rights.” Total, private ownership of this kind is known as a “fee simple estate.” Specific information is available on the menu items above.